Cancer is the leading cause of death in China, accounting for almost 3 million deaths every year. The incidence and mortality of cancer in China is increasing and becoming an even bigger public health issue. Studies show that nearly half of cancer-related deaths in China are due to lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and infections. These studies reinforce the need for better implementation of known interventions, and the development of more measures to reduce exposure to such risk factors. Effective public health interventions could potentially greatly reduce the cancer burden in China.